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    ​Extending Service Life

    Solutions for durable concrete

    Durability and service life are major considerations in the design of concrete structures subject to aggressive environments. Typical projects requiring long-term durability include dams, bridges, parking garages, water and wastewater treatment facilities, marine and various other structures. Designing more durable, longer-lasting concrete structures is a constant goal of engineers, architects, owners, government agencies, contractors and concrete producers worldwide.

    Issues that can affect concrete service life:

    Shrinkage and Cracking

    Cracking of concrete can be a major issue. Cracking may be due to plastic shrinkage and plastic settlement of concrete in the unhardened state or to drying shrinkage or other factors in the hardened concrete.  Read more to learn how to minimize concrete shrinkage and cracking.


    Chloride ions enter concrete from deicing salts on roads and bridges or from seawater in marine environments. Chloride ions promote corrosion of reinforcing steel and other metals in concrete, which then expand and cause the surrounding concrete to crack and deteriorate.  Read more to learn how to minimize concrete corrosion.

    Alkali-Silica Reactivity

    Concrete containing certain reactive siliceous aggregates may experience abnormal internal expansion and cracking due to alkali-silica reaction.  Read more to learn how to minimize ASR.

    Water Penetration

    Water penetration, leakage and a continuously wet concrete structure can lead to durability problems, an undesirable damp/humid atmosphere, mold growth, and premature deterioration.  Read more to learn how to minimize concrete deterioration.


    Concrete that is placed under water is subject to washing out the cement and other fines.  This phenomenon reduces the binder content required for strength and durability in concrete.  Read more to learn how to minimize anti-washout in concrete.


    Concrete is a porous material that can readily absorb water.  When water saturated concrete is exposed to freezing conditions, the water turns to ice and expands.  This expansion can cause scaling and concrete deterioration.  Read more to learn about solutions that help with freeze-thawing of concrete.

    Sulfate Attack

    Soil, groundwater, or water bodies containing sulfates can be detrimental to concrete. The chemical reactions cause deleterious expansive forces within the concrete matrix, resulting in cracking and deterioration. Read more on how to combat sulfate attack in concrete.

    Surface Evaporation

    Fresh concrete can be susceptible to rapid evaporation.  Rapid evaporation can lead to plastic shrinkage cracking resulting in premature deterioration.  Read more to learn how to prevent premature deterioration in concrete.​